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THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE.

THE BOOK or ADAM AND EVE,

ALSO CALLED

THE CONFLICT OF ADAM AND EVE WITH SATAN,

A Booh of the early Eastern Churchy STransIatetJ from tf)c ^tfjiopic,

WITH NOTES FROM THE KUFALE, TALMUD, MIDRASHIM, AND OTHER EASTERN WORKS,

BY

THE REV. a C. MALAN, D.D.,

VICAR OF BR0ADWIND80R.

CM/IRLCS Ci^RRINGTON, 15, Faubourg Montmartrc, 13,

A.

LONDON

G, NURMAK AND SON, PRINTERS, HART STREET,

COVENT GARDEN,

To

THE KEV. DR. ERNEST TRUMPP,

EEOIUS PROFR880R OF ORIENTAL LANGUAGES AND LITEKATUBB IN tHG

USIVKRSITY OF MUNICH, AND ORDINARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL

BAVARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,

In token of respect for his accurate and profound Oriental scholarship,

from the Translator.

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2007 with funding from

IVIicrosoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/bookofadamevealsOOmalaiala

PREFACE.

In the Sixth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions,* we find a severe censure of certain early works, among which are reckoned ^i^ia aTroKpvtpa Mcao-eo)? kuX 'Ei/wp^, koX *A8afx, 'Haatov re koI Aa^tS k. t. X. *'The apocryphal Books of Moses, of Enoch, of Adam, as well as those of Isaiah and David," etc. Those works, however, do not deserve all that the Apostles are made to say of them.

The apocryphal " Book of Moses," there alluded to, is probably the XeTTTf) Fei/eo-f? or " lesser Genesis," known as having existed of old in Greek, under that name; and also under that of *A'KOKd\v'^L<i M., or TO, ^lovfitjXaia "the Apocalypse of Moses," or " the Book of Jubilees," quoted by S. Epiphanius,t Geo. Syncellus,! Geo. Cedrenus,§ and others. Of those three titles, rh *lov^7]Xaia remained little understood, until Dr. Dillmann published in 1859, the Ethiopic Kufale, or "Liber Jubilaeorum ;" so named by him, because throughout the book, said to have been revealed to Moses by " the Angel of the Face," or Michael the division of periods of time is by jubilees of forty- oine fifty years. The Kufale is often quoted in the notes to this book.

* Ch. xvi, ed. Cotel. t Hwcs., xxxix, 6.

X Chronogr., vol. i, p- 7, cd. D. § Hist. Comp., vol. i, p. 9.

iv PREFACE.

As to the " Book of Enoch," it was known only through a quotation from it by S. Jude v. 14, 15 ; and after him, from allusions to it by S. Hilarius, S. Clement of Alexandria, Origan, Geo. Syncellus, and others until it was discovered in Abyssinia by Bruce, who brought several Ethiopic copies of it from thence to Europe ; one of which is now in the Bodleian Library. This was published and also translated by Archbishop Lawrence, in 1838. A later and more accurate edition of it was issued by Dr. Dillmann at Leipzig, in 1851, from several MSS. brought from Abyssinia since the days of Bruce ; and it has been translated more than once within the last few years. It is highly interesting, as a work of the probable date of its composition ^not long before or after the coming of Christ. It is often quoted in the following pages.

As to the " Book of Adam,'' mentioned in the passage above given from the Apostolic Constitutions, if it is not the Sidra VAdam, also called " the Book of Adam,*' of the Mandaeans, it may be Bto? *A8dfi, "the Life of Adam," alluded to by Geo. Syncellus,* as distinct from the XeTrrrj Teveai^;. It is also said to exist in Syriac and in Arabic, in the Vatican Libraiy j and " Vita Adae et EvaB " has lately been worked out of the ^ ATTOKokv^i^ 'ASdfi, and of other documents in Latin, by Dr. W. Meyer, of the Academy of Munich, and published there in 1879.

Lastly, by the apocryphal " Book of Isaiah," is probably meant his " Ascension," only known in Ethiopic ; and published in Ethiopic and in English, by Archbishop Lawrence, at Oxford, in 18 19. It dates, probably, from the early days of the Church, and is mentioned by Origen and by S. Epiphanius,t as ro ava^uTLKov 'Hcraifbu. It alludes, among other things, to the martyrdom of Isaiah, who was sawn asunder by order of Manasseh.

The present interesting work, however, has little in common with those apocrypha ; among which it has no right to take

* Chron.. vol. i, p. 7. f Hmres., xl, 2 ; Ixvii, 3.

PREFACE. V

place. Whereas they all are apparently of Jewish origin, this " Conflict of Adam " is altogether a Christian work, and of a later date than those writings. It is probably the work of some pious and orthodox Egyptian of the fifth or sixth century, who tells his story, or -stories some of which are also found in the Talmud and thence in the Coran and elsewhere as they were then believed ; adding here and there a good deal of his own. Yet all is told in the simple to Western taste, perhaps, childish style of pious Eastern writers of those days. The author's devout faith runs throughout his narra- tive ; he seems willing and ready to believe much rather than to doubt ; to take things for granted, rather than to question the truth of them.

His object then, is to connect the first Adam with the coming of the second, Christ; five thousand five hundred years* after Adam's fall in Eden, and in fulfilment of the promise then made him of a Saviour. In our author's words, Adam holds frequent intercourse witb "the Word of God," who tells him of His coming in the flesh in order to save him ; a promise Adam charges his children to remember and to hand down to their own children. Then, when dead, his body is embalmed, and laid in the Cave of Treasures, where he and Eve had spent their life ; it is thence taken by Noah, with the gold, the incense and the myrrh brought from Eden, and laid in the ark ; whence it is taken out by Melchizedec after the Flood j and brought by him, together with Shem and an angel sent to show them the way, to *' the Middle of the Earth ;" 6/x(f>aXo<: T^9 7^9, to the hill " Cranium,'' or Golgotha. There, the rock opens of its own accord to receive the body of Adam, and then closes in again. It is the very spot on which the Saviour's cross was raised, when He was crucified.

This book, now first translated into English, and that tells much that will be new to most readers was probably written in Arabic in Egypt ; whence it was taken farther south, and

According to the LXX.

vi PREFACE.

translated into Ethiopic. At all events no Greek or Egyptian original of it, is, as yet, known to exist ; neither does it betray the least vestige of Hellenism. There is, indeed, a Syriac work of the early Church, called M'drath gaze, "the Cave of Treasures'* mentioned by Asseman,* and ascribed to S. Ephrem by the presbyter Simeon, t who lived in the thirteenth century. Judging from its title, it may have much in common with the present work; yet in the absence of all knowledge of that Syriac MS., one can, for the present, only look upon the Arabic copy, written in Egypt, as the probable original. For the Ethiopic version, although written in good style, bears unmistakable marks of an Arabic origin.

It is, of course, as yet impossible to fix with certainty the date of either the Arabic original, or of the Ethiopic translation. Dr. Dillmann, in the preface to his German translation, seems to think this " Conflict of Adam " may date from the fifth or sixth century j and there does not seem to be any good reason for thinking otherwise. It is, however, certain that it must have been written before the ninth century ; judging from the numerous extracts from it, given word for word, by Said Ibn-Batrik, or Eutychus, physician, and also Melkite Patriarch, who Hved in the ninth century ; when he wrote his Nazam al-jawdhir, or " String of Gems " as he called his " Annals of the World," from the creation to his own time. It is a work of merit ; although, perhaps, too full of stories that cannot be received as authentic.

The present translation was made on the accurate and Bcholarly Ethiopic edition lately published by the great orientalist Dr. E. Trumpp, Professor at the University of Munich. He had the advantage of the Arabic original which he frequently quotes in his valuable notes, of which I have often availed myself ; an advantage the " magnus Apollo," in Ethiopic lore. Dr. Dillmann, does not seem to have had,

* Bibl. Or., vol. iii, p. 281, and vol. ii, p. 498, t Jb., vol. iii, p. 663

PREFACE. vii

for comparison with the more or less imperfect MSS. on which he made his German translation in 1853.

As the Ethiopic text is irregularly divided in sections, some of great length, owing to the subject in hand, I thought more convenient to divide my translation into Books, and chapters, some of which have the same headings as those given in the text.

Book I takes in the whole life of Adam and Eve, from the day they left Eden ; their dwelling in the Cave of Treasures ; their trials and temptations; Satan's manifold apparitions to them, and the Word of God coming to comfort and help them. Then the birth of Cain, of Abel, and of their twin sisters ; Cain's love for his own twin sister, Luluwa, whom Adam and Eve wished to join to Abel ; hence Cain's hatred and murder of his brother ; and Adam's sorrow and death.

Book II gives the history of the patriarchs who lived before the Flood ; the dwelling of the children of Seth on the Holy Mountain Mount Hermon until they were lured by Genun and by the daughters of Cain, to come down from the mountain ; and as "fallen angels," to lose God's love for them. Then Cain's death, when slain by Lamech the blind ; and the lives of the other patriarchs, until the birth of Noah.

Book III gives the history of the building of the ark ; of the Flood, of the settlement of Noah and his family ; and of the carrying of the body of Adam to " the Middle of the Earth ;" the growth of idolatry under Nimrud ; the destruction of idols ; and the call of Abraham.

Book IV gives a short history of the patriarchs, judges and kings, from Abraham to the coming of Christ.

The first three Books are by far the most interesting.

The fourth professes to give genealogies that were irre- trievably lost ; yet somehow, discovered and given in detail by the author. Most of the names are of pure Ethiopic origin, and others are so disfigured as not to be recognized. I have,

viii PREFACE.

therefore, given them unaltered ; as they cannot be of any great moment.

I have only to add that although frequently obliged to translate freely sundry passages unfit for a more accurate rendering, I have yet kept as much as I could to the style of the original, as best in a work of this kind. I have also added a few notes from the Talmud, Midrashim and other Eastern writings, placed at the end of the volume, and numbered, to which reference is made in the text in order either to illustrate the matter in hand^ or to supply details of particular interest.

S. C. MALAN.

The Vicaeaqe, Broadwindsor, July I2th, 1882.

THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE,

ALSO CALLED

THE CONFLICT OF ADAM AND EVE WITH SATAN.

BOOK I.

In tlie name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: One God.

We begin, with the help of God, to whom be glory, the writing of the Conflict of Adam and Eve, that befell them after they had come out of the garden, and while they dwelt in the Cave of Treasures, by command of God the Creator.*

CHAPTER I.

On the third day,t God planted* the garden^ in the east of the earth, on the border of the world^ eastward, beyond which, towards the sun-rising, one finds nothing but water, that encompasses the whole world, and reaches unto the borders of heaven.*!

And to the north [of the garden] there is a sea of water, clear and pure to the taste, like unto nothing else; so that,

* The Ethiopic translator adds here " their Creator and Ruler, to Him by name, the living God, endowed with reason and speech, Creator of all creatures be glory."

t Of the week, Beresh. Rdb., sect, i, fol. 18.

J for the most learned work as yet published on the probable site of Eden, see Wo lag das Pa/radies ? of Dr. F. Delitzsch, 1881.

1

2 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

through the clearness thereof, one may look into the depths of the earth.* And when a man washes himself in it, he becomes clean of the cleanness thereof, and white of its whiteness even if he were dark.f

And God created that sea of His own good pleasm*e, J for He knew what would come of the man He should make j so that after he had left the garden, on account of his transgression,^ men should he born in the earth, from among whom righteous ones should die, whose souls God would raise at the last day ; when they should return to their flesh ; should bathe in the water of that sea, and all of them repent of [their] sins.

But when God made Adam go out of the garden,* He did not place him on the border of it northward, lest he should draw near to the sea of water, and he and Eve wash themselves in it, be cleansed from their sins, forget the transgression they had committed, and be no longer reminded of it in the thought§ of their punishment.

Then, again, as to the southern side [of the garden], God was not pleased to let Adam dwell there ; because, when the wind blew from the north, it would bring him, on that southern side, the delicious smell of the trees of the garden. Wherefore God did not put Adam there, lest he should smell the sweet smell of [those] trees,'^ forget his transgression, and find consolation for what he had done, take delight in the smell of the trees, and not be cleansed from his transgression.^

Again, also, because God is merciful and of great pity, and governs all things in a way He alone knows He made our father Adam dwell in the western border of the garden, because on that side the earth is very broad.^ And God commanded him to dwell there in a cave in a rock— the Cave of Treasures below the garden.^"

* Lit. world. t Or, black.

X Or^ " with a deliberate plan or purpose of His own." Arab.

§ Lit. sound or echo.

I.] THE CAVE OF TREASURES.

CHAPTER II.

But when our father Adam, and Eve, went out of the garden,^^ they trod [the ground] on their feet, not knowing they were treading.

And when they came to the opening of the gate of the garden, and saw the broad earth spread before them, [covered] with stones large and small, and with sand, they feared and trembled, and fell on their faces, from the fear that came upon them ; and they were as dead.

Because whereas they had hitherto been in the garden- land, beautiful [ly planted] with all manner of trees they now saw themselves, in a strange land, which they knew not, and had never seen.^^

[And] because at that time they were filled with the grace of a bright nature,^^ and they had not hearts [turned] towards earth [ly things] .

Therefore had God pity on them ; and when He saw them fallen before the gate of the garden, He sent His Word* unto father Adam and Eve, and raised them from their fallen state.f

CHAPTER III.

Concerning the promiseX of the great Jive days and a half.

God said to Adam, " I have ordained on this earth days and years, and thou and thy seed shall dwell and walk in it, until the days and years are fulfilled ; when I shall send the Word that created thee, and against which thou hast transgressed,

* By " the Word of God " throughout this book, is to be understood in general, the second person of the most Holy Trinity, 6 Xoyoc (S. John i.) ''"*T SnD"^Z3 or SHQ^D of the Targums and Talmuds also ; as abundantly shown in the book Yezirah (ed. Amst. 1642, p. 84, 89).

•j- Lit. their fall. t Or- covenant.

1*

4 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

the Word that made thee come out of the garden, and that raised thee when thou wast fallen. Yea, the Word that will again save thee when the five days and a half are fulfilled."*

But when Adam heard these words from God, and [of] the great five days and a half, he did not understand the meaning of them.

For Adam was thinking that there would be but five days and a half for him, to the end of the world.

And Adam wept, and prayed God to explain it to him.

Then God in His mercy for Adam [who was made after] His own image and similitude, explained to him, that these were 5000 and 500 years ; and how One would then come and save him and his seed.^*

But God had before that made this covenant with our father,t Adam, in the same terms, ere he came out of the garden, [when he was] by the tree whereof Eve took [the fruit] and gave it him to eat.

Inasmuch as, when our father Adam came out of the garden, he passed by J that tree, and saw how God had then changed the appearance of it into another form, and how it withered.

And as Adam went to it he feared, trembled and fell down ; but God in His mercy lifted him up, and then made this cove- nant with him.§

And, again, when A(^a,m was by the gate of the garden, and saw the cherub with a sword of flashing fire in his hand, and the cherub grew angry and frowned at him, both Adam and Eve became afraid of him, and thought he meant to put them to death. So they fell on their faces, and trembled with fear.

But he had pity on them, and showed them mercy; and turning [from them] went up to heaven, and prayed unto the Lord, and said :

* According to Cod. Nasar. Ill, p. 69, this world is to last from the creation of Adam, 480,000 years. t Or» made this promitie to.

J Or, went away from. § Or, made him this promise.

I,] PROMISE OF A SAVIOUR. 1>

"Lord, Thou didst send me to watch at the gate of the garden, with a sword of fire.

" But when Thy servants, Adam and Eve, saw me, they fell on their faces, and were as dead. O my Lord, what shall we do to Thy servants ? "

Then God had pity on them, and showed them mercy, and sent His Angel to keep the garden.

And the Word of the Lord came unto Adam and Eve, and raised them up.

And the Lord said to Adam, " I told thee that at the end of five days and a half, I will send my Word and save thee.

" Strengthen thy heart, therefore, and abide in the Cave of Treasures, of which I have before spoken to thee.'*

And when Adam heard this Word from God, he was com- forted with that which God had told him. For He had told him how He would save him.

CHAPTER lY.

But Adam and Eve wept for having come out of the garden, their first abode.

And, indeed, when Adam looked at his flesh,* that was altered, he wept bitterly, he and Eve, over what they had done. And they walked and went gently down into the Cave of Treasures.

And as they came to it Adam wept over himself and said to Eve, " Look at this cave that is to be our prison in this world, and a place of punishment !

" What is it compared with the garden ? What is its narrowness compared with the spacef of the other ?

" What is this rock, by the side of those groves ? What is the gloom of this cavern, compared with the light of the garden ?

* Or, body, and so throughout. f Or, room, breadth.

6 TEE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

"What is this overhanging ledge of rock to shelter us, compared with the mercy of the Lord that overshadowed us ?

'' What is the soil of this cave compared with the garden - land ? This earth, strewed with stones ; and that, planted with delicious fruit-trees ?"

And Adam said to Eve, " Look at thine eyes, and at mine, which afore beheld angels in heaven, praising ; and they, too, without ceasing.

" But now we do not see as we did : our eyes have become of flesh ; they cannot see in like manner as they saw before/'

Adam said again to Eve, " What is our body to-day, [compared] to what it was in former days, when we dwelt in the garden V

After this Adam did not like to enter the cave, under the overhanging rock ; nor would he ever have entered it.

But he bowed to God's orders ; and said to himself, " unless I enter the cave, I shall again be a transgressor."

CHAPTER V.

Then Adam and Eve entered the cave, and stood praying,^^ in their own tongue, unknown to us, but which they knew well.

And as they prayed, Adam raised his eyes, and saw the rock and the roof of the cave that covered [him] overhead, so that he could see neither heaven, nor God's creatures. So he wept and smote heavily upon his breast, until he dropped, and was as dead.

And Eve sat weeping ; for she believed he was dead.

Then she arose, spread her hands towards God, suing Him for mercy and pity, and said, " 0 God, forgive me my sin, [the sin] which I committed, and remember it not against me.

I.] THE CAVE OF TREASURES. 7

" For I alone'^ caused Thy servant to fall from the garden into this lost estate ;* from light into this darkness j and from the abode of joy into this prison.

** 0 God, look upon this Thy servant thus fallen,f and raise him from his death, that he may weep and repent of his transgression which he committed through me.

" Take not away his soul this once ; but let him [live] that he may stand after the measure of his repentance, and do Thy will, as before his death.

" Bat if Thou do not raise him up, then, 0 God, take away my own soul, [that I be] like him ; and leave me not in this dungeon, one and alone; for I could not stand alone in this world, but with him [only] .

"For Thou, O God, didst cause a slumber to come upon him, and didst take a bone from his side,^''' and didst restore the flesh in the place of it, by Thy divine power.

" And Thou didst take me, the bone, and make me a woman, bright like him, with heart, reason, and speech ; J and in flesh, like unto his own ; and Thou didst make me after the likeness of his countenance, by Thy mercy and power.

" O Lord, I and he are one, and Thou, 0 God, art our Creator, Thou art [He] who made us both in one day.^^

" Therefore, O God, give him life, that he may be with me iu this strange land, while we dwell in it on account of our trangression.

" But if Thou wilt not give him life, then take me, even me, like him ', that we both may die the same day.''§

And Eve wept bitterly, and fell upon our father Adam j from her great sorrow.

CHAPTER VI.

But God looked upon them ; for they had killed themselves

through great gi'ief.

* Lit. extinction, destruction. t Or> cast down.

J Kujale,p. 11,12. § Lit. with a fervent heart.

S TEE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

But He would raise them and comfort them.

He, therefore, sent His Word unto them ; that they should stand and be raised forthwith.

And the Lord said unto Adam and Eve, " You transgressed of your owp free will, until you came out of the garden in which I had placed you. Of your own free will have you transgressed^' through your desire for divinity, greatness, and an exalted state, such as I have ; so that I deprived you of the bright nature in which you then were, and I made you come out of the garden to this land, rough and full of trouble.

*' If only you had not transgressed My commandment and had kept My law, and had not eaten of the [fruit of the] tree, near which I told you not to come ! And there were fruit trees in the garden better than that one.

*' But the wicked Satan^ who continued not in his first estate, nor kept his faith ; in whom was no good [intent] towards Me, [and who] though I had created him, yet set Me at naught, and sought the Godhead, so that I hurled him down from heaven, he it is who made the tree* appear pleasant in your eyes, until you ate of it, by hearkening to him.^^

" Thus have you transgressed My commandment, and there- fore have I brought upon you all these sorrows.^^

" For I am God the Creator, who, when I created My creatures, did not intend to destroy them. But after they had sorely roused My anger, I punished them with grievous plagues, until they repent.

''But, if on the contrary, they still continue hardened in their trdnsgression,t they shall be under a curse for ever.*'

CHAPTER VII.

When Adam and Eve heard these words from God, they wept and sobbed yet more ; but they strengthened their hearts

* Whose fruit was either grapes, apple of Paradise, or figs. Beresh. Rob., sect, xiv, fol. 18. I Lit. are in debt of it.

I.] THE CAVE OF TREASURES. 9

in God, because they now felt that the Lord was to them like a father and a mother ; and for this very reason, they wept before Him, and sought mercy from Him.

Then God had pity on them, and said : " 0 Adam, I have made My covenant with thee,* and I will not turn from it ; neither will I let thee return to the garden, until My covenant of the great five days and a half is fulfilled."

Then Adam said unto God, " 0 Lord, Thou didst create us, and make us [fit] to be in the garden ; and before I transgressed, Thou madest all beasts come to me, that I should name them.

" Thy grace was then on me ; and I named every one accord- ing to Thy mind ; and Thou madest them all subject unto me.^^

" But now, 0 Lord God, that I have transgressed Thy com- mandment, all beasts will rise against me and will devour me, and Eve Thy handmaid ; and will cut off our life from the face of the earth.

'* I therefore beseech Thee, 0 God, that, since Thou hast made us come out of the garden, and hast made us be in a strange land, Thou wilt not let the beasts hurt us."

When the Lord heard these words from Adam, He had pity on him, and felt that he had truly said that the beasts [of the field] would rise and devour him and Eve, because He, the Lord, was angry with them [two] on account of their trans- gression.

Then God commanded the beasts, and the birds, and all that moves upon the earth, to come to Adam and to be familiar with him,t and not to trouble him and Eve ; nor yet any of the good and righteous among their posterity.

Then the beasts did obeisance to Adam, according to the commandment of God ; except the serpent, against which God was wroth. It did not come to Adam, with the beasts. |

* Or, I made thee a promise. •(• Or, do obeisance to him ; or to submit to him.

X Another reading is that God did not bring the serpent, or forbade it to come, with the other beasts, because He was angry with it.

10 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

CHAPTER VIII.

Then Adam wept and said, " [0] God, when we dwelt in the garden, and our hearts were lifted up, we saw the angels that sang praises in heaven, but now we do not see as we were used to do ;^ nay, when we entered the cave, all creation became hidden from us."

Then God the Lord said unto Adam, "When thou wast under subjection [to Me], thou hadst a bright nature within thee,^^ and for that reason couldst thou see things afar off. But after thy transgression thy bright nature was withdrawn from thee j and it was not left to thee to see things afar off, but only near at hand ; after the ability of the flesh ; for it is brutish."

When Adam and Eve had heard these words from God, they went their way ; praising and worshipping Him with a sorrow- ful heart.

And God ceased to commune with them.

CHAPTER IX.

Then Adam and Eve came out of the Cave of Treasures, and drew near to the garden gate, and there they stood to look at it, and wept for having come away from it. And Adam and Eve went from before the gate of the garden to the southern side of it, and found there the water that watered the garden, from the root of the Tree of Life, and that parted itself from thence into four rivers over the earth.*

Then they came and drew near to that water, and looked at it ; and sawf that it was the water that came forth from under the root of the Tree of Life in the garden. And Adam wept and wailed, and smote upon his breast, for being severed from the garden ; and said to Eve :

* Beresh. Bah., sect, xvi, fol. 18, 19 ; and More Nevukim, sect, ii, ch. 30. t Lit. knew.

I.] THE RIVER OF LIFE. 11

*' Why hast thou brought upon me, upon thyself, and upon our seed, so [many] of [these] plagues and punishments ?"

And Eve said unto him, "What is it thou hast seen, to weep and to speak to me in this wise V

And he said to Eve, " Seest thou not this water that was with us in the garden, that watered the trees of the garden, and flowed out [thence] ?

" And we, when we were in the garden, did not care about it ;* but since we came to this strange land, we love it, and turn it to use for our hodj."

But when Eve heard these words from him, she wept ; and from the soreness of their weeping, they fell into that water ; and would have put an end to themselves in it, so as never again to return and behold the creation ; for when they looked upon the work of creation, they [felt they must] put an end to themselves, t

CHAPTER X.

Then God, merciful and gracious, looked upon them thus lying in the water, and nigh unto death, and sent an angel, who brought them out of the water, and laid them on the sea- shore as dead.

Then the angel went up to God, was welcome, and said, " [0] God, Thy creatures have breathed their last.''

Then God sent His Word unto Adam and Eve, who raised them from [their] death.

And Adam said, after he was raised, " 0 God, while we were iir the garden we did not [require, or] care for this water; J but since we came to this land we cannot do without it.

* It is said that " he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow " (Eccl. i. 18). So did Adam increase his sorrow when he increased his knowledge. Bere*h, Bab., sect, xix, fol. 20.

t i.e., from sorrow at having left the garden so much more heavenly and more beautiful.

X The Ethiopic translator added : " For Thy mercy was with us ; we needed not this water."

12 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

Then God said to Adam, "While thou wast under My com- mand and wast a bright angel, thou knewest not this water.*

" But after that thou hast transgressed My commandment, thou canst not do without water, wherein to wash thy body and make it grow ; for it is now like [that of] beasts, and is in want of water."

When Adam and Eve heard these words from God, they wept a bitter cry ; and Adam entreated God to let him return into the garden, and look at it a second time.

But God said unto Adam, " I have made thee a promise ;t when that promise is fulfilled, I will bring thee back into the garden, thee and thy righteous seed."

And God ceased to commune with Adam.

CHAPTER XI.

Then Adam and Eve felt themselves burning with thirst, and heat, and sorrow.

And Adam said to Eve, ** We shall not drink of this water, even if we were to die. 0 Eve, when this water comes into our inner parts, it will increase our punishments and that of our children, that shall come after us."

Both Adam and Eve then withdrew from the water, and drank none of it at all ; but came and entered the Cave of Treasures.

But [when in it] Adam could not see Eve ; he only heard the noise she made. Neither could she see Adam, but heard the noise he made.

* AuTtXovv «3e dffapKoi, aapKiKrJQ SiaOitreuc ovTrm Kaipbv ixovrig. Cedren. H. Comp., p. 14.

t Also : •' I haye boand thee to Me in a covenant ; when that covenant is fulfilled—."

I.] THE FIRST DARKNESS. 13

Then Adam wept, in deep affliction, and smote upon his breast ; and he arose and said to Eve, " Where art thou V

And she said unto him, " Lo, I am standing in this dark- ness."

He then said to her, " Remember the bright nature in which we lived, while we abode in the garden ! "

" O Eve ! remember the glory* that rested on us in the garden.^^ 0 Eve ! remember the trees that overshadowed us in the garden while we [moved] among them.

" O Eve ! remember that while we were in the garden, we knew neither night nor day . Think of the Tree of Life,t from below which flowed the water, and that shed lustre over us ! Remember, 0 Eve, the garden-land, and the brightness thereof !

" Think, oh think of that garden in which was no darkness, while we dwelt therein.

" Whereas no sooner did we come into this Cave of Treasures than darkness compassed us round about; until we can no longer see each other ; and all the pleasure of this life has come to an end."

CHAPTER XII.

Then Adam smote upon his breast, he and Eve, and they mourned the whole night until dawn drew near, and they sighed over the length of the night in Miyazia. J

And Adam beat himself, and threw himself on the ground in the cave, from bitter grief, and because of the darkness, and lay there as dead.

But Eve heard the noise he made in falling upon the earth. And she felt about for him with her hands, and found him like a corpse.

Then she was afraid, speechless, and remained by him.

* Or, grace, favour. Arab.

t " Whose height was ^''^W nSD W^H "f'^nD a walk of 500 years."— Targ. Jonathan, in Gen. iii. J May.

14 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

But, the merciful Lord looked on the death of Adam, and on Eve's silence from fear of the darkness.

And the Word of God came unto Adam and raised him from his death, and opened Eve's mouth that she might speak.

Then Adam arose in the cave and said, '' 0 God, wherefore has light departed from us, and darkness come over us ? Wherefore dost Thou leave us in [this] long darkness ? Why wilt Thou plague us thus ?

''And this darkness, O Lord, where was it ere it came upon us ? It is such, that we cannot see each other.

" For, so long as we were in the garden, we neither saw nor even knew [what] darkness [is] . I was not hidden from Eve, neither was she [hidden] from me, until [now that] she cannot see me ; and no darkness came upon us, to separate us from each other.

" But she and I were both in one bright light. I saw her and she saw me. Yet now since we came into this cave, dark- ness has come upon us, and parted us asunder, so that I do not see her, and she does not see me.

" 0 Lord,* wilt Thou then plague us with this darkness ? "

CHAPTER XIII.

Then when God, who is merciful and full of pity, heard Adam's voice. He said unto him :

" 0 Adam, so long as the good angel was obedient to Me, a bright light rested on him and on his hosts.

*' But when he transgressed My commandment, I deprived him of that bright nature, and he became dark.

" And when he was in the heavens, in the realms of light, he knew naught of darkness.

* Arab, adds : " but now be gracious unto ns."

I.] THE FIRST DARK NIGHT. 15

" But he transgressed, and I made him fall from heaven upon the earth ; and it was this darkness that came upon him.*

"And on thee, O Adam, while in My garden and obedient to Me, did that bright light rest also.

" But when I heard of thy transgression,t T deprived thee of that bright light. Yet, of My mercy, I did not turn thee into darkness, but I made thee thy body of flesh, over which I spread this skin, in order that it may bear cold and heat. J

" If I had let My wrath fall heavily upon thee, I should have destroyed thee ; and had I turned thee into darkness, it would have been as if I killed thee.

" But in My mercy, I have made thee as thou art ; when thou didst transgress My commandment, O Adam, I drove thee from the garden, and made thee come forth into this land ; and commanded thee to dwell in this cave; and darkness came upon thee, as it did upon him who transgressed My command- ment.

" Thus, O Adam, has this night deceived thee. It is not to last for ever ; but is only of twelve hours ; when it is over, day- light will return.

" Sigh not, therefore, neither be moved ; and say not in thy heart that this darkness is long and drags on wearily ; and say not in thy heart that I plague thee with it.

" Strengthen thy heart, and be not afraid. This darkness is not a punishment. But, 0 Adam, I have made the day, and have placed the sun in it to give light ; in order that thou and thy children should do your work.

" For I knew thou shouldest sin and transgress, and come out into this land. Yet would I not [force thee, nor] be hard upon thee, nor shut thee up ; nor doom thee through thy fall;§

* Arab. '* upon them all together," i,e., Satan and his hosts, f Arab, reads : " but when thou didst transgress against me," omitting " I heard." % Arab. " to keep off heat and cold from thee.''

§ Dr. Trumpp translates this: "Yet thou wast not forced (or obliged) to transgress ; neither did I fasten thee down (seal thee) nor doom thee to the fall."

16 THE BOOK OF ADAM AND EVE. [book

nor through thy coming out from h'ght into darkness j nor yet [through thy coming] from the garden into this land.

" For 1 made thee of the hght ; and I willed to bring out children of light from thee, and like unto thee.

" But thou didst not keep one day My commandment ; until I had finished the creation and blessed everything in it.

" Then I commanded thee concerning the tree, that thou eat not thereof. Yet I knew that Satan, who deceived himself, would also deceive thee.

" So I made known to thee by means of the tree, not to come near him.* And I told thee not to eat of the fruit thereof, nor to taste of it, nor yet to sit under it,t nor to yield to it.

'' Had I not been and spoken to thee, 0 Adam, concerning the tree, and had I left thee without a commandment, and thou hadst sinned it would have been an offence on My part, for not having given [thee] any order ; thou wouldst turn round and blame Me [for it] .

" But I comman